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电气预防性维护计划

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电气预防性维护: Save Time and Money

 
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电气预防性维护根据美国消防协会的数据,24%的火灾 在工业和制造业中设置是由电气配电和照明设备引起的. This is the leading cause of fires in these settings, followed by heating equipment. 它也是最可预防的. Crucial to that prevention is electrical preventive maintenance. 这是一个很容易预防的火源, 这就是为什么电气预防性维护对于防止这些灾难发生如此重要的原因.

What’s more? 在工业和制造业环境中,火灾的第二个主要原因是加热设备.

20%的建筑火灾 on industrial properties are caused by electrical failures or malfunctions, which is the leading cause of these kinds of fires. These fires happen mostly in processing and manufacturing areas where dust, lint, sawdust, excelsior and other fibers flammable liquids act as tinder.

Regular inspections are critical to detecting fire hazards like these. Proactive preventive measures will reduce the possibility for industrial fires.

Why Should Every Facility Have an 电气预防性维护 Program?

没有定期的检查和维护, equipment failure can lead to catastrophic safety hazards, infficiency, 以及膨胀的维护成本. 电气设备的平均故障率 increases by 300% without an EPM program.

There are many reasons a facility may not have an EPM program in place. 最常见的一种是预算限制. Often, budgets for maintenance programs are underestimated and underfunded. 一些设施经理和财务决策者认为,在财政上最负责任的策略是等到故障发生后再采取行动.

Often, decision-makers postpone or overlook maintenance for working machinery, seeing failure as the only indicator that maintenance is needed.

他们可能没有意识到的是,他们可以很容易地防止设备故障,而花更少的钱,获得更高的效率. The lack of mechanical maintenance can cause electrical failure. Poorly functioning machine components put additional stress on the entire machine. Electrical failure can happen when improper maintenance leaves machine components:

  • Ungreased
  • Misaligned
  • Generally worn

不过,有一个更好的策略. 你可以像对待汽车那样对待你的电气设备,通过定期的检查和维护,来防止超过三分之二的设备故障.

在本指南的后面,体育买球app下载将深入讨论电气预防性维护的好处.

如何定义你的EPM程序

体育买球app下载知道,电子和电气设备退化和故障是一个问题时,不是如果.

从被动的方式转变为主动的方式,涉及到思维和实践的改变. EPM例程是关于检查的, detecting, and correcting those problematic conditions before they cause outages, safety hazards, or other problems.

但下一个问题是:如何做到?

At first glance, this concept may seem too imposing and too vast to accomplish. 如何监控设施中的所有电气设备而不遗漏任何东西?

Fortunately, 世界各地的许多作业都依赖EPM程序来防止极端灾难性的故障, and there have already been standardized routines developed. (试想一下,如果退化的电气设备被用于医疗保健行业或军事等环境,会发生什么.)

Routine Types of Electric Preventative Maintenance

The elements of any routine fall into three categories (inspection, testing, 和维修),并包括:

  • Inventory: 工厂内的每一件电气设备都应该按其发生故障时的危害程度进行分类和排名. 这些将成为你的检查清单. In this guide, you’ll find a pre-made sample checklist to get you started.
  • Inspection: Every item on your inventory will have a regular inspection period. Some will undergo the standard inspection every year, 但有些——比如关键设备, 或者在磨损更快的条件下使用的设备——将需要更频繁地检查.
  • Regular Observation & Testing: Observation is a great way to check for faltering components. Search for odd sounds, smells, or visual cues that indicate vibration. 寻找能点燃的灰尘和碎片. Though this is a great first line of defense against issues, it shouldn’t be the only way you monitor your equipment. 有时,需要对配电系统进行广泛的测试,以确保可靠性和识别潜在的未来故障.
  • Record-Keeping: Extensive records should be kept of every piece of electrical equipment. 这包括您遇到的所有操作问题的报告——即使是很小的问题, 以及所有的修正, replacements, maintenance dates, contacts, etc. Every failure to boot up, every light that powers out for five minutes before powering back on, 每个更换的螺丝都要记录. 这将帮助你的技术人员更快地排除设备的问题.
  • Repair & Replacement: 这是你日常工作的最后一步. 任何故障或性能不佳的设备必须根据其需要进行调整、修理或更换. 为每台机器建立一个零件清单以及制造商提供的文档也是一个好主意,这些文档可能有助于正确识别零件, ordering, and troubleshooting.
  • Analytics: 与任何广泛详细的数据集一样, there’s great value in keeping meticulous records about your electrical equipment. Over time, 您将建立足够的数据,以自信地预测您的设备的行为和耐久性. 您可以使用这些信息来改进您的EPM程序,使它们更具成本效益.

电气预防性维护

电气预防性维护案例On Friday, November 21, 1980, inside a Las Vegas hotel restaurant called The Deli, an improperly installed refrigerated display case caught fire.

这机器定期检查过吗, someone would have noticed either the ungrounded conduit, 或风扇安装不正确, 灾难或许就可以避免了. Instead, The Deli 整个一层楼 美高梅赌场度假村  它的所在地,被火焰吞没了吗.

Eighty-five people were killed and 627 more were injured. 米高梅大酒店亏损10亿美元. 因为米高梅大酒店是当地博彩业最大的税收贡献者之一, 关闭工厂花费了当地政府大约1美元.7 million.

It remains to this day the deadliest disaster in the history of Nevada, 以及美国现代第三严重的酒店火灾.S. 历史-和一个可能已经避免了电气预防性维护计划.

Measuring the Benefits of 电气预防性维护

As we’ve seen, an organized EPM program is about more than just equipment functionality. 这是为了保护你的投资, 你的社区:也就是你的员工, customers, and neighbors.

Financial Benefits

The most basic financial benefits of EPM are right up front: electrical failures, electrical fires, 而设备故障则会造成巨额损失. In fact, electrical failure costs businesses millions of dollars in losses annually. EPM被证明可以减少大多数主要问题,减少昂贵的无功维护的需要.

But the cost of an equipment failure isn’t just immediate. 此外还有间接的财务影响, such as payouts when injuries happen in unsafe workspaces, higher electricity costs from inappropriately calibrated machinery, 更不用说昂贵的设备更换了.

Operational Benefits

EPM helps facilities achieve maximum operational efficiency and reliability. As a result of EPM maintenance practices, there are fewer unplanned downtimes. When they do occur, they’re shorter and more predictable.

When EPM isn’t employed, operational efficiency suffers drastically. Often, 如果不进行详细的检查,需要关闭机械设备或设施,出现故障的设备就不会暴露.

受到损害的系统或组件,如断路器或继电器开关,将级联问题下游和损害其他系统. -- headaches that can be avoided with regular EPM routines.

Safety Benefits

电机是危险的, and there are strict safety codes and precautions employees must take to use it. When something out of the ordinary happens with the machinery, the stakes are raised.

在米高梅大酒店和赌场的案例中, thorough electrical preventive maintenance could have saved dozens of lives, by alerting maintenance staff to dangerous electrical hazards early, 在他们造成致命问题之前.

EPM also helps protect critical safety equipment such as fire alarm systems, generators, UPS systems, emergency, and egress lighting. 商业设施中用于安全的许多前线防御可以通过正确的协议保持正常运行.

The Cost of Repair vs. Replacement

采用反应性方法意味着设备故障的最终时刻将是未知的, unpredictable challenge you’ll have to face – likely sooner than necessary.

Unplanned shutdowns due to equipment failures are just that – unplanned. 它们从来都不方便.

通常情况下,你的设备会在操作过程中出现故障,导致生产延迟. You could try to schedule emergency repairs on short notice, but you’ll still have to pay premium service costs for the effort.

When machinery breaks down due to neglected inspection and maintenance, 做简单的修理往往已经太晚了. 这就是高昂成本的来源.

Worse, 当涉及到配电系统时, new equipment doesn’t always replace the failed equipment in a 1:1 way. Modifications may be needed to make the system work, further adding to your costs. 很多时候,当更换的电子部件不是库存的或过时的项目,这甚至会导致更大的延迟,使你的设备重新上线.

electrical maintenance, repair, and troubleshooting

 

库存创建和清单开发:

电气预防性维护计划在开发新的EPM程序中,最关键的步骤之一是建立一个针对您的设施定制的库存和维护清单. It's recommended you consult a qualified professional during this process. Without prior knowledge, it's easy to overlook less obvious pieces of equipment.

For instance, 在你的清单上包括大楼的内部配电系统是很重要的. Additionally, 许多设施管理人员错误地认为,没有活动部件的电气设备是不会故障的. 事实是,这些设备需要像其他设备一样频繁地进行监控和维护.

When building your customized inventory and checklist, you should:

  • 识别和表示关键的、高价值的系统.
  • Consult manufacturer documents for recommended maintenance windows.
  • 使用记录中的数据来调整设备的时间表,这些设备可能比之前预期的更需要维护.

Scheduling

第一次建立EPM时间表时, 重要的是要理解这个过程将是棘手的,可能需要进行一些微调. 理解三种主要的日程安排类型之间的区别也很重要, which are:

  • Calendar-Based: Inspections, detections, 根据上一次维护的日期或时间间隔,定期进行修正.
  • Predictive: 进行检查和维护,因为有人怀疑可能发生故障.
  • Prescriptive: Inspections and maintenance performed as a result of a breakdown.

EPM的目标是尽可能地依赖于基于日历的调度,同时只在必要时实现预测性维护.

How often should you schedule a system-wide EPM inspection? 答案是多方面的.

First, most electrical manufacturers recommend a period of two to three years. 这应该是设备维护和检查之间最长的绝对间隔.

然而,你的一些设备应该在这些系统范围的检查之间进行检查. These include:

  • 关键设备(如发生故障时将导致严重服务中断或安全隐患的设备).
  • Equipment used in harsh or external environments that may be exposed to sand, dust, moisture, corrosive road salt, 或其他材料造成更快的降解.
  • Equipment with more frequent maintenance recommended by the manufacturer.
  • 检查电气设备外壳的额定安装环境,以保护内部部件. This happens all too often and almost always leads to premature failures.

在制定你的时间表时,咨询一个有经验的工程师可以帮助你确保你经常注意你所有的机器.

Record-Keeping

Record-keeping is one of the most overlooked components of an EPM routine. However, 这对于在不牺牲安全或生产率的情况下削减成本的最终目标是至关重要的.

它还允许准确的指标来衡量您的设施的全电动kpi(关键性能指标).

A competent electrical preventive maintenance record includes:

  • An itemized list of all electrical equipment in the facility.
  • A list of wear and damage on all electrical equipment, including critical damage that impedes operation or may soon impede operation, 以及非临界伤害.
  • EPM procedures and repairs are performed on each piece of equipment in the facility, including those that happen outside of regularly scheduled maintenance.
  • An inventory of all spare parts stored within the facility.
  • 设备中每件设备的故障和异常情况的清单.
  • 重要文件,如说明书、示意图、保证书和任何其他正式文件.
  • Performance records including things like production results, which would show the correlation between performance and maintenance, such as machine performance based on smooth-running and reliable parts or machines, as well as improved employee performance as a result of well-lit, smooth-running, 以及安全的工作环境.

Keeping careful records ensures timely inspections and repairs. It tracks the results of tests over time to help identify potential failures. 它还通知您的技术人员机器可能过期维护,并帮助他们排除问题.

A clear, concise, 最好的数字记录保存系统将减少从故障到修复的平均时间.

如何聘用合格的电气人员

Inspecting, testing, and repairing electrical equipment is best performed by qualified, licensed electricians. 执行EPM程序的人员应接受培训,了解您物业内每件设备的使用和维护. 某些重要的设备, 比如配电系统, 需要额外的认证.

When considering assistance with your electrical systems and maintenance, be sure you are aware of their qualifications and experience. 了解初级电工和熟练工人之间的区别是很重要的, so you’ll have a better idea of what to expect from their work, or what to look out for.

不同级别的经验包括:

Apprentice: Because the duties of an electrician are varied and critical, 电工要花3到6年的时间在工作上和教室里作为学徒进行培训. An apprentice is someone currently engaged in that training. 他们可能有经验, 但是他们不能在没有高级电工监督的情况下工作.

Journeyman: 熟练电工要通过技能和知识测试才能获得执照. They are qualified to work independently on most electrical components. 一旦他们有了必要的资格, they may elect to test for the Master Electricians license in their state.

The requirements a journeyman must meet to be licensed vary by state. 然而,它们通常包括:

  • Five years and 8,000 hours of on the job experience.
  • 1,100课堂教学时数.
  • Completion of certification testing that verifies jobsite experience, 电气规范知识, and the ability to understand schematics and technical material.

Master: 熟练的电工有丰富的经验和专业知识,并通过技能和知识测试获得执照. In Wisconsin, Master electricians have fulfilled the following requirements:

  • Completed 12 months of experience as a licensed journeyman electrician.
  • 有安装经验, repairing, and maintaining electrical wiring over the course of at least 60 months, accruing at least 10,000 hours of experience during this time OR at least 1,至少7年,每年工作1万小时.

electrical maintenance, repair, and troubleshooting

 

检查过程中可能出现的危害:

electrical maintenance, repair, and troubleshooting物理EPM检查的控制主题应该是保持设备清洁, dry, and tight. This will keep stray debris and moisture from entering and causing damage. It will also keep loose parts from causing more damage.

配电故障最常见的原因是连接或部件松动(这导致周围 30%的电力供应中断)和暴露在湿气(这导致周围 17% of outages). Together, these cause approximately 50% of all facility power outages.

松散的连接和部件是危险的(就像体育买球app下载之前看到的米高梅大酒店和赌场的情况),因为它们会导致不稳定的操作, 意想不到的载荷分布, and power fluctuations. Moisture can interfere with electrical conduits and cause short circuits.

其他一些常见问题包括:

  • Line disturbances
  • Foreign objects
  • Defective, improperly installed, or inadequate installation
  • Exposed wiring
  • 负载更改或添加
  • Circuit alterations
  • Potential for collision
  • 保护装置设置或选择不当
  • Lightning damage
  • 超载或容量不足
  • Dust, dirt, and oil
  • 温度极端(冷热)

Remember, not all damage to electrical equipment is caused by human error. General “wear and tear” is standard with all machinery. As such, it’s important totrack all degradation over time. 这种影响在恶劣天气或严寒季节的环境中尤其明显.

停机前红外扫描

停机前红外扫描Occasionally, 您将需要计划停机时间来检查所有仪器并进行必要的调整. 现在是了解系统总体运行状况的好时机,也是进行密集测试的最佳时机. 

在您的计划中断之前,谨慎地进行热成像检查,也称为 Infrared (IR) Scan, 电缆和总线连接,开关设备,电机控制中心,配电板和启动器. 这种检查应在峰值负载时间进行,以准确测量设备的应力.

These tests are critical in preventing equipment failure. They help detect connections that need to be cleaned or tightened, 过载或不平衡的电路, 或安装不当的设备.

During this test, 一名技术人员使用红外摄像机来读取高温旅行的数据——这可能是连接松动的迹象, 组件失效,负载不平衡.. 除了在测试阶段断路器和开关偶尔合闸和重新合闸, 热成像测试是非侵入性的.

During the inspection, 一份早期清单将列出可能需要调整或维修的设备,最终帮助设施团队在停电时将资源集中在正确的地区.

热像检查只能由经过认证的热像仪使用专用设备进行. 他们接受了必要的教育, experience, and judgment to determine the best course of action (for example, whether a device should be repaired or replaced) based on test results.

其他测试和EPM程序

计划停机生效后, 还有一些其他的测试可以显示您的设备的健康状况,这些测试可以由签约的专家进行. These include:

  • 继电器和断路器试验: 继电器和断路器是保护跳闸装置,需要定期检查其功能.
  • Oil Tests: Transformers, circuit breakers, and disconnect switches all use oil to function. This oil needs to be sampled and screen-tested to determine its quality.
  • Dissolved Gas Test: 变压器的油可以溶解成气体, and the gas tested, 这可以揭示任何问题的单位.
  • SF6 Gas Leak Testing: 运行在SF6气体上的设备需要进行测试,以确保气体系统的完整性.

EPM检查表的其他项目:

  • 检查和测试所有变压器
  • Inspect and test arc fault circuit breakers (AFCI)
  • Inspect and test ground fault circuit breakers (GFCI)
  • 检查和测试电压调节器
  • Check electrical panels
  • 验证计量工作是否正确
  • 检查并清洁电机控制装置
  • 检查和测试开关和齿轮
  • Inspect the distribution and termination of the wiring
  • Check all grounding and overcurrent protection devices
  • 检查灯光及灯具,包括:
    • recessed
    • tracking
    • security
    • motion-sensored
    • parking lot and garage
    • HID
    • fluorescent
  • 镇流器和灯的更换
  • 特殊系统,如:
    • generators
    • alarm
    • 不间断电源(UPS)系统
    • 建筑物的电涌防护
    • telecommunications
    • video and cable
    • battery power

电气巡检表

If it’s time for your company to expand or establish your electrical maintenance program, 体育买球app下载是您的全方位服务合作伙伴. Our complete list of electrical services includes:

  • Technical Support
  • Preventive Maintenance
  • 24小时紧急服务
  • 红外检测技术
  • 工业电气维修
  • Design Assistance
  • 变频驱动
  • 机器和过程控制布线
  • 可再生能源
  • 光伏太阳能板集成
  • LED更换和改造
  • 节能设备
  • 楼宇自动化系统/暖通空调控制
  • 用于无接触照明的占用传感器
  • Air Filtration and Sanitizing Systems for Virus-Free Environments
  • 电动汽车充电系统
  • 通过密尔沃基电气联合学徒培训计划(MEJATC)获得执照的电工

electrical maintenance, repair, and troubleshooting

Lemberg is the one-stop-shop for electrical maintenance, repair, and troubleshooting. 体育买球app下载customer-service-driven, provide prompt service from licensed technicians 24/7, and it’s our mission to be your preferred provider with a personal touch.

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Lemberg Electric, Inc., (262)781-1500, Info@LembergElectric.com

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